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History of Lebanon

Occupied Lebanon (1982 AD - 1990 AD)


Israeli Invation of 1982

In June 1982, the Israeli forces invaded Lebanon reaching into Beirut. A Multinational force made up of US and West European troops were deployed in Beirut after an international mediation.

The agreement called for PLO, Syrian and Israeli forces to pull of Beirut. Thousands of PLO militiamen were deported from Lebanon while the Syrian and Israeli army were withdrawing from Beirut.

In September 1982, the Lebanese president-elect Bashir Gemayel was assassinated which disrupted the agreement. In the following year, Syrian-sponsored groups launched suicide bombing attacks against the peace-keeping US and French forces barracks killing 300 of them.

The multinational forces were forced to leave Lebanon while the Syrian troops advanced in Beirut and launched several attempts to occupy the Lebanese ministry of defense and presidential palace.

In 1985 Israel withdrew most of its forces from Lebanon keeping a strip along its borders controlled by Israeli troops and proxy guerillas. Syria continued its policy of spreading its homogony on Lebanon with violence against Lebanese people, and through hostage-taking threatening American and West-European countries encouraging communist and radical groups.


In 1998, Syrian troops and their allies worked on preventing the election of a new Lebanese president in order to completely paralyze the Lebanese authorities.

The Lebanese president then, used his constitutional prerogative and appointed the Lebanese Army Commander, General Michel Aoun, as a Prime Minister of interim government before ending his term.

The Syrians opposed the Lebanese Government and shelled the Lebanese civilian areas with heavy bombs. Meanwhile, the Lebanese Primer managed to gain popularity by; enforcing the role of the Lebanese army over the militia, activating the governmental departments and working for political and economical reforms.

The Lebanese Government launched a war of liberation against the Syrian army demanding the scheduling of a Syrian withdrawal from Lebanon.

The Syrian occupation troops pressured Lebanese politician in the areas it occupies to oppose the Lebanese government; they have even assassinated the highest Sunni Muslim clerk, mufti of Lebanon Hassan Khaled, because of his rejection of the Syrian fight against Lebanese.

(1990)Complete Occupation

In August of 1990 Iraq invaded its neighboring country of Kuwait, and drew the international community’s attention to the Iraqi occupation of the small oil-country and the threats to the world-largest oil reserve of Saudi Arabia.

The Syrian regime gained the opportunity and promised not to side with Iraq in return of controlling Lebanon. On October 1990, the Syrian troops launched aerial and ground attacks and occupied the Lebanese presidential palace and the ministry of defense defeating the reminder of the Lebanese army.

The Syrian regime appointed a proxy government and president in occupied Lebanon and started a large scale persecution operation against Lebanese people: arresting, abducting, torturing and killing whoever opposes its occupation.


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